Rules of Procedure
No conversation can actually occur if everyone is talking immediately, particularly in an association the size of the UN. Indeed, even in the advisory groups, with 20 individuals in a single room, nothing can complete unless there is some request. The Rules of Procedure (RoP) give this genuinely necessary request and administer the debate. The top ensures that everybody can get their state and that the conversation is looked after respectably.
Rules of Procedure may change from different MUNs, yet there are consistently two primary rules that are at the center of any UN conversation:
Just a single individual may speak at a time.
The Chair's choices are law – whatever they state, that is the manner by which things will work.
- Quorum : The quorum is basically the minimum number of Member States who are needed to be present for the PGA (President of the General Assembly)/Chair while opening a meeting and it is also necessary for the GA (General Assembly) to take decisions. The quorum determined for commencement of a GA meeting is one-third of the Member States in the Plenary and one-fourth of the Member States in the Main Committees. However, the quorum for the adoption of decisions/resolutions and also elections is simply the majority of Member States.
Points of order :
Points of order are one of the most important aspects in the whole procedure and it can be raised by Member States at any time and at any point in the meeting. Point of order is pivotal as it can challenge Chairman also and if a delegate feels that the Chairman is not following the Rules of Procedure or is not being sufficiently active in ensuring that others are doing so, he/she has the right to raise a point of order. The Rules of Procedure also suggest that the Chairman can interrupt in proceedings to hear the point of order and he has to rule immediately on it.
The Rules also suggest that if any delegate believes in the fact that the Chairman’s is ruling incorrectly, he/she can appeal against the ruling. It is because the ultimate power in a Committee rests with the delegates. The Rules further also provide that if the appeal is successful, than the Chairman must immediately move according to the appeal.
Further if the Chairman's ruling on a particular point of order is appealed, than the question is put before the Committee, whether the Chairman's ruling should be accepted or rejected. To show their consent or rejection, delegate vote 'Yes' or 'No'.
There is a widely-used convention which is used for signalling the Chairman the reason you are asking for the floor is not to simply seek to add your name in the speaker's list but it is to raise a point of order. The delegate makes a sign of 'T' with their hand and nameplate.
- Suspension of a meeting : Meeting suspension can be done for a limited amount of time. This is done upon the request from a Member State or by the PGA. It is also the fact that a suspended meeting is often resumed on the same day of suspension.
Adjournment of a meeting : majority, after a maximum of two delegations who have spoken in favour of and two in against the request.
Explanation of vote: Member states have the right that before and after action is taken on a draft resolution/decision, they can explain their vote or if it’s the case of an adoption by consensus then their position. The main sponsor and the co-sponsors of a draft resolution have no right for making explanations of vote.
The spoken word Different rules of debate are not exclusively mentioned in the composed Rules of Procedure however are cherished in the traditional 'culture' of every conference. For instance, typically it is the tradition for every Member State to offer a statement/ expression during the General Debate, and in the event that they wish to talk a second time, it is the tradition for them to begin by apologizing. This isn't mentioned in any Rule of Procedure yet is a long-standing tradition.
Now and again, a tradition may after many may be seen by a delegate as a Rule of Procedure since it has been carried out for so long.
Opening the Debate
Roll Call: At the MUN, the beginning stage is the Roll Call. Individually, every country's name is perused and the delegates should express their goal to join the debate. In Model UN, the Roll Call is utilized essentially to check participation and compute the necessary share for procedural and substantial votes.
A delegate can answer with "Present" or "Present and Voting". A representative who introduces himself/herself as "Present and Voting" cannot skip the substantive voting.
When this stage is finished, the meeting can proceed onward to the subsequent stage.
Setting the Agenda: Often, you will be given the subject of the debate prior to going to the meeting. On different occasions, you will have the opportunity to pick between a few subjects before the discussion begins. Which subject will be chosen depends on you and other delegates. When there is more than one subject on the table, your country ought to have an inclination of what you might want to talk about first. You need to settle on sure that your choice of the subject point is the first on the agenda.
Setting the agenda requires making a motion. Making the motion just requires you raising your hand/notice and saying "[COUNTRY'S NAME] moves to put [TOPIC A] first on the agenda".
When the motion is made, it would require another delegate to second it (by saying "[COUNTRY NAME] seconds"). Different countries may attempt to put their subjects on the agenda first, and the primary point is chosen by a vote. Prior to each vote, the Chair may choose to have a discussion on the motion, with two individuals speaking for and two against the topic proposed. A simple majority is required for the topic to be picked for discussion. As this is a procedural vote, the delegate may not avoid and should decide in favor of or against the movement.
When the votes are projected, and the topic of the discussion has been picked, the substantive debate can start. From this second on, it is your chance to shape perspectives, offer arrangements, and elevate your country's plan to get the most ideal result. This is the place where the Model UN starts for many members.
A debate on a theme usually begins with opening statements:
Opening Statements: Opening statements are conveyed by each state's delegate as per alphabetical order. The Chair may decide to set a period limit, and any member may move to recommend an alternate time limit. Changing as far as possible set by the Chair requires a movement followed by a procedural vote with a simple majority.
During every country's address, no other country may intrude, and motions can't be made until all statements are read.
When opening statements are finished, the discussion moves to the General Speaker's List.
The General Speaker's List – Baseline to the Discussion:
The General Speakers List (GSL) is the default segment of the discussion and the part in which most of the discussion happens. At first, the Chair builds up a period limit for every speaker. Countries at that point request to be added to the list, and then speak according to the order by which they have been added to the list.
A delegate can change the speaker's time utilizing a motion, which requires a procedural vote with a simple majority.
Every country should close its statement within the assigned time No other agent may speak while another is talking, however, note-passing is permitted.
In the event that a delegate completes before the dispensed time has passed, they can yield their time either to the Chair, another representative or to questions. If they pick the latter, the Chair will stop the time and open the floor to questions; when a question is asked, the rest of the time is offered to the speaker to respond to it, and this cycle rehashes itself until the time has completely passed. To join the GSL, delegates can pass a note to the Chair or stand by until the Chair asks "Who wants to be added to the speaker's list at this time?" (This generally happens each 3-4 talks or whenever the list is empty). If the speaker's list stays empty without any speakers ready to be recorded, the debate will be naturally shut and the session will move to the voting procedure.
- Right of Reply: In the event that a country is referenced by name or is singled out during another delegate’s speech, and the mention is perceived negatively by the country, they may approach the Chair for a Right of Reply. Whenever without a doubt, a Right of Reply permits a country to speak after the "accusing" country has completed, regardless of where the ‘accused’ country is in the list. The Chair can utilize his/her prudence to regulate the utilization of this motion.
Point:Each MUN delegate needs to begin someplace. Delegates need to ask explanation inquiries concerning both procedure and substance, just as remarks on the conduct of different delegates. Points are a helpful and appropriate device that delegates can use to expand their understanding of the debate. There are three significant points in Model UN:
Point of Order If a delegate doesn't observe the rules of conversation, or if they utilize inappropriate language or digress from the subject of the discussion, some other delegate may raise a Point of Order against them once the floor is open. In the event that the Point of Order is acknowledged, the Chair will denounce the "offending" country and may pick a punishment if the offense is rehashed.
Point of Parliamentary Inquiry and Point of Personal Privilege : Delegates may approach the Chair for an explanation of the Rules of Procedure between speakers by making a Point of Parliamentary Inquiry. This could be utilized to understand the procedures applied at some random point as expected and should be stated as an inquiry. Moreover, any delegate who wishes to make a Point of Personal Privilege, for example, permission to go to the restroom or opening a window, may do as such between speakers, in a quick way, disturbing the session as little as possible.
Moving from the General Speaker's List: After a couple of speakers have spoken, the Chair may open the floor to motions. Countries may make motions to have the time limit changed, move the conversation to a moderated or unmoderated caucus,take a break, or close the discussion and move to voting. The Chair may decide not to acknowledge a motion if there are many at a specific time, if a similar motion was opposed recently, or if the motion is considered hindering for a productive debate.
Voting to change the time limit or to move a caucus requires a simple majority, while a motion to close the debate requires a two-thirds majority to pass. As these are procedural votes, no delegate may decline.
Moderated Caucus: Like its name proposes, the GSL is normally reasonable for general discussion, while they work to think of explicit solutions as an engaged debate – a caucus. A moderated caucus has a particular topic, and every speaker should speak just according to that subject. The caucus requires a set amount of time per speaker, the two of which are controlled by the delegate who made the motion for the caucus. The speaking time can't be changed, yet the length of a caucus might be reached out by a motion from any delegate once the designated time has slipped by, and it requires a simple majority.
A movement for a directed caucus typically goes in that capacity: "[COUNTRY NAME] moves for a directed caucus on the topic of [TOPIC], for X minutes, allowing Y seconds for every speaker." This is then voted on (if more than one motion exists, precedence is taken into consideration)
If the motion passes, the country that made the motion speaks first. The Chair chooses the following speaker out of countries raising their flags/placards to demonstrate their desire to speak. There is no Right of Reply in a moderated caucus.The caucus ends when the time has slipped by, or when no country wishes to speak. Once the caucus is over, the debate returns to the GSL.
Unmoderated Caucus: An unmoderated caucus is a free-form debate, without any turns, points or speaking time. Delegates are permitted to move around the room during an unmoderated caucus, and it is a decent stage for writing and negotiating draft resolutions.
A motion for an unmoderated caucus generally goes as follows: "[COUNTRY NAME] moves for an unmoderated caucus of X minutes". A motion for an unmoderated caucus has priority over motion for a moderated caucus, and it is put to a procedural vote.
During an unmoderated caucus, anybody may speak whenever, with no specific order , and collaboration is encouraged to come to an agreement and for writing the draft resolution.
An unmoderated caucus goes on however long the distributed time has not lapsed. A motion might be made to expand the time further, and be acknowledged by the Chair without a vote. When the gathering is finished, the debate re-visits the GSL.
Overruling a Chair's Decision: In the event that a country feels a Chair’s choice isn't right, they may make a motion to overrule the Chair's decision. Seconds and a two-thirds majority are needed for this motion to pass, and the Chair will have the opportunity to explain their judgment.
Draft Resolutions : Draft resolutions are the foundation of the decision making process Model UN. They express the proposed solutions for the current issue that speaks to the perspective and agenda to the proposing countries. When composed, a draft resolution should be given to the Chair. For a draft resolution to be considered,it should have a minimum number of sponsors to support it and will also vote in favor of it. The fundamental number of sponsors should be set by the Chair before the draft resolution is presented, and it differs with the size of the Committee.
When a draft goal has been affirmed by the Chair, a motion might be made to acquaint it with the board. A sponsor will present the draft resolution and read the clauses individually.
Correcting Draft Resolutions : When a draft resolution has been presented, changes to operative clauses might be recommended and voted for. The amendments might be presented, and afterward the Chair will inquire as to whether they acknowledge it as an inviting change. Sponsors having a problem with the alteration will be noted, and a vote will follow.If the amendment passes, it will be included in the draft resolution and the other sponsors can eliminate their sponsorship.
An amended operative clause can't be re-amended.
Closing the Debate : A motion to close debate may happen during the GSL. The Chair may acknowledge up to two speakers for and two against closing the debate. For the debate to close, a two-thirds majority should vote for closing the debate.
If the motion passes, the debate closes from that point. If the draft resolution is on the table, the committee moves to decide on the draft resolution according to their serial number.Else, the conversation on the subject is suspended, and the committee moves to the next thing on the agenda.
Voting Procedure : During the voting procedure, nobody is permitted to leave the room. The delegates vote on the draft resolution by the order in which they have been acknowledged. All decisions on the substance of goals are viewed as meaningful votes, which means delegates can vote"Yes", "No", or "Abstain" (abstentions are permitted uniquely for non-sponsors and countries who expressed they are "Present" during Roll Call).
During the voting procedure, there are a few motions that can impact the voting procedure. These are utilized to control the decision on specific resolutions that can't be additionally amended.
A motion to vote by condition might be made by any delegate just before the voting procedure starts and requires no vote. When any delegate makes this motion the delegates vote on every operative clause by order. Any statement that has more 'yes' votes than 'no' votes will stay in the draft resolution, while clauses that fail will be taken out.
Roll Call Vote : Any delegate may make a motion for a Roll Call Vote in favour of a particular resolution. When made, this motion requires no vote, and the voting procedure quickly changes to a roll call vote.
A roll call vote is similar to the roll call toward the start of every session. The Chair will read out all the countries' names in an alphabetical order.. After hearing one's country's name, the representative may answer 'Yes', 'No', 'Pass' or 'Abstain'.
The second round of voting will have only the delegates who addressed 'Pass' during the first round. The delegates will at that point need to answer 'Yes' or 'No'. A delegate may neither 'Pass' a second time nor decline during the second round of voting.
When the voting is finished for the first draft resolution and it has passed, it becomes the Resolution of the committee. which moves to discuss the next topic on the agenda. But if the draft resolution fails, voting will continue for the next draft resolution. When the voting for all draft resolutions finish, the discussion is closed and the committee moves on to the next thing on the agenda.